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19th January 2024

Male Fertility Test

Male Fertility Test: A Comprehensive Guide to Assessing Male Reproductive Health

Male Fertility Test: A Comprehensive Guide to Assessing Male Reproductive Health

When it comes to reproductive health, focus is often primarily on women. However, male fertility tests are instrumental in evaluating and addressing potential issues that may hinder conception. In this blog, we’ll look at the options for male fertility testing, providing you with a greater understanding of the various tests available for assessment.

Understanding Male Fertility and Reproductive Health

Before we delve into the intricacies of a male fertility test, it’s essential to understand the male reproductive system. The reproductive organs, including the testes, sperm ducts, and penis, collectively function to produce, transport, and deliver sperm for fertilisation. However, several disorders and health problems, such as hormonal imbalances, anatomical abnormalities, or lifestyle factors, can interfere with this process, sometimes leading to male infertility.

Male Fertility Evaluation

Through a series of tests and evaluations, a fertility specialist can identify and address potential fertility issues.

If you and your partner have been trying to conceive for over a year without success, you may wish to see your GP to get some advice. Early diagnosis and treatment will significantly increase the chances of conceiving successfully. It’s usually recommended that you and your partner both get advice as problems are just as likely to affect either or both of you and you need to know exactly what the issues are before deciding on further tests.

Through a series of tests and evaluations, a fertility specialist can identify and address potential issues. There is absolutely no shame in seeking help for male fertility issues, they are much more common than you may think. According to the NHS, one in three couples struggle to achieve pregnancy.

The condition of low sperm count is known as oligozoospermia, and this is diagnosed when a man has fewer than fifteen million sperm per millilitre of semen. Having this condition doesn’t mean you can’t conceive naturally, it just means it may make it more difficult, and possibly take longer. However, if problems persist there are various treatments available on the NHS or privately to help you become a dad.

Types of Male Fertility Tests

To comprehensively evaluate male fertility, various tests are performed, each serving a specific purpose. Some of the tests your GP can arrange are:

Sperm Count Test

This test measures the number of sperm present in any given amount of semen. A low sperm count may indicate potential fertility issues that need further investigation. Don't worry, though. It's not always about numbers; it's more about finding solutions.

Semen Analysis

Semen analysis evaluates various aspects of semen, including sperm count, volume, and viscosity. This is a comprehensive assessment providing a broader understanding of male reproductive health.

Parameters such as sperm motility (ability to move) and morphology (shape and size) are assessed. This analysis provides valuable insights into sperm health, ultimately determining its ability to fertilize an egg. The results to this test are usually available after one week from the test. If the results are not normal the test will be repeated approximately three months later to be sure of accuracy. If problems are still suspected, your GP can refer you to a male infertility specialist at a clinic or hospital.

When undergoing male fertility tests, it is crucial to follow the specific procedures involved to ensure accurate results. Additionally, it is essential to consult with a fertility specialist who can interpret your test results effectively.

Home Sperm Count Test

If you really don’t wish to see your GP, it is possible to get sperm count test kits from a pharmacy. These home tests give you an idea of whether your sperm count is low, but the NHS advise that they can only give an indication. There is a fear that they may not be accurate enough to be reliable, and this could result in you having false reassurance that all is well, or else you may get a low sperm reading when in fact your count is normal, leading to unnecessary stress.

Causes of Low Sperm Count

There are numerous reasons why sperm count may be low:

  • Hormone imbalance. This condition, known as hypogonadism, is when there is a reduced hormone production.
  • Damaged or blocked tubes which carry the sperm. This could have been the result of injury or certain illnesses. In some cases, the tubes may be absent due to a birth defect.
  • Having had undescended testicles in infancy.
  • Klinefelter syndrome which is a genetic condition.
  • Infections such as chlamydia, gonorrhoea or prostatitis which is an infection of the prostate gland.
  • Varicoceles, which is when the veins in the testicles become enlarged.
  • Scarring or damage from surgery on testicles or hernia repair procedures.
  • Testicles becoming overheated such as during a prolonged high fever.
  • Alcohol abuse, smoking and using recreational drugs.
  • Some form of medication, including testosterone replacement therapy, prolonged use of anabolic steroids, chemotherapy, certain antibiotics, and some antidepressant drugs.
  • Being overweight or obese.

Treatment of Male Infertility

Understanding the causes of male infertility is essential for effective treatment.

Understanding the causes of male infertility is essential for effective treatment. Several factors, already mentioned, such as hormonal imbalances, reproductive tract disorders, genetic abnormalities, or lifestyle choices, can all contribute to male infertility. However, take heart in knowing that many causes are treatable, and several options, including medications, surgical interventions, and assisted reproductive techniques, exist to help you overcome these obstacles.

If you have been diagnosed with a low sperm count, there are various options you may wish to try:


Your GP may suggest that you try to conceive naturally for longer. It has often been found to be the case that a couple conceive during the second year of trying for a baby. There are certain things recommended, apart from the obvious procedure, that you might do to help boost your chances:

  • Moderate alcohol and stop smoking.
  • Stay fit by exercising regularly.
  • Avoid junk food and stick with a healthy diet.


In vitro fertilisation may be a consideration if you have a slightly low sperm count and have been trying to conceive naturally for at least two years. This procedure involves eggs being taken from a woman’s ovaries and then being fertilised with sperm in a laboratory. The fertilised egg is then planted in the woman’s womb to grow. There is no guarantee that IVF will always result in pregnancy, and it can be physically and emotionally demanding. You will receive counselling to ensure you fully appreciate what’s involved in the process.

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

This is a form of IVF where a single sperm is injected directly into an egg to fertilise it. The Human Fertilisation and Embryo Authority has more in-depth information.

Donor Insemination

This is where sperm from another man is used to fertilise the egg. It is often the solution when there is an insurmountable problem with a man’s sperm or if he has a genetic disorder that might be passed on to a child. This procedure may be carried out as part of ICSI or IVF treatment.

Gonadotrophin Medication

This is where there are very low levels of gonadotrophin hormones which stimulate sperm production. You may be prescribed gonadotrophin medicine to improve your fertility. This treatment is only offered if there is a verified reason for low sperm count.

Surgery for Male Infertility

There are several instances where surgical procedures may be used to help with fertility issues. The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority have guidelines on their website on the various surgeries and what they entail. This information also includes guidance for men who have had a vasectomy and wish to have it reversed.

Seeking Professional Help: Male Fertility Clinics and Specialists

Navigating the realm of male fertility can be overwhelming, which is why consulting a male fertility specialist is a really good idea. These specialists are highly trained professionals who can provide comprehensive evaluations, personalised treatment plans, and ongoing support. When seeking professional help, ensure you choose a reputable male fertility clinic or specialist who understands your needs.

Fertility Supplements

Natural supplements may help to improve fertility including:

For an in-depth look at supplements for male fertility read our blog.


Assessing male reproductive health through fertility tests is a crucial step for couples facing conception challenges. Remember, seeking help is not a sign of weakness but a proactive measure to address any potential issues. In summary, if you're experiencing difficulties in conceiving, don't hesitate to explore male fertility tests and consult a specialist who can guide you towards the path of parenthood.

10 Top Key Takeaways

  • A Male fertility test plays a vital role in diagnosing and treating potential fertility issues.
  • Understanding the male reproductive system and common disorders is important.
  • Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly increase the chances of successful conception.
  • Sperm count tests, sperm analysis, and semen analysis are common male fertility tests.
  • Following the correct procedures and consulting a specialist are essential for accurate interpretation.
  • Various factors, both medical and lifestyle related, can cause male infertility.
  • Treatment options for male infertility can include medication, assisted reproductive techniques such as IVF, and surgery.
  • Choosing a reputable male fertility clinic or specialist is important.
  • Seeking help for male fertility issues is a proactive step towards dealing with problems.
  • Open communication and specialised professional guidance are key to resolving male fertility concerns.

Further Reading

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